Materials 2012, 5(4), 661-683; doi:10.3390/ma5040661
Article

Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Str. 34, Salzburg A-5020, Austria
Received: 20 January 2012; in revised form: 9 March 2012 / Accepted: 28 March 2012 / Published: 19 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transparent Conducting Oxides)
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Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO) and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al), are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.
Keywords: transparent conducting oxide; oxide; TCO; ITO; ZnO:Al; delafossite

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stadler, A. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview. Materials 2012, 5, 661-683.

AMA Style

Stadler A. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview. Materials. 2012; 5(4):661-683.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stadler, Andreas. 2012. "Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview." Materials 5, no. 4: 661-683.

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