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Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications
Materials 2012, 5(4), 644-660; doi:10.3390/ma5040644
Article

Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

1,* , 2
,
2
,
2
 and
2
1 Oerlikon USA, Inc., Business Unit Systems, 970 Lake Carillon Dr, Suite 300, St. Petersburg, FL 33716, USA 2 OC Oerlikon Balzers AG, Business Unit Systems, Iramali 18, P.O. Box 1000, Balzers LI-9496, Liechtenstein
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 27 March 2012 / Accepted: 29 March 2012 / Published: 13 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-k Materials and Devices)
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Abstract

Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2) and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.
Keywords: thin film capacitors; barium titanate; high-k thin film capacitors; barium titanate; high-k
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Reynolds, G.J.; Kratzer, M.; Dubs, M.; Felzer, H.; Mamazza, R. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate. Materials 2012, 5, 644-660.

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