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Materials 2012, 5(3), 432-442; doi:10.3390/ma5030432
Article

Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport

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Received: 5 January 2012; in revised form: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 29 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transparent Conducting Oxides)
Download PDF [435 KB, uploaded 12 March 2012]
Abstract: Indium doped zinc oxide [ZnO:In] thin films have been deposited at 430°C on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate and indium acetate. Pulverization of the solution was done by ultrasonic excitation. The variations in the electrical, structural, optical, and morphological characteristics of ZnO:In thin films, as a function of both the water content in the starting solution and the substrate temperature, were studied. The electrical resistivity of ZnO:In thin films is not significantly affected with the increase in the water content, up to 200 mL/L; further increase in water content causes an increase in the resistivity of the films. All films show a polycrystalline character, fitting well with the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite-type structure. No preferential growth in samples deposited with the lowest water content was observed, whereas an increase in water content gave rise to a (002) growth. The surface morphology of the films shows a consistency with structure results, as non-geometrical shaped round grains were observed in the case of films deposited with the lowest water content, whereas hexagonal slices, with a wide size distribution were observed in the other cases. In addition, films deposited with the highest water content show a narrow size distribution.
Keywords: zinc oxide; thin solid films; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis zinc oxide; thin solid films; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Biswal, R.; Castañeda, L.; Moctezuma, R.; Vega-Pérez, J.; Olvera, M.D.L.L.; Maldonado, A. Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport. Materials 2012, 5, 432-442.

AMA Style

Biswal R, Castañeda L, Moctezuma R, Vega-Pérez J, Olvera MDLL, Maldonado A. Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport. Materials. 2012; 5(3):432-442.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biswal, Rajesh; Castañeda, Luis; Moctezuma, Rosario; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Olvera, María De La Luz; Maldonado, Arturo. 2012. "Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport." Materials 5, no. 3: 432-442.


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