Materials 2012, 5(5), 818-850; doi:10.3390/ma5050818
Review

Investigating the Defect Structures in Transparent Conducting Oxides Using X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques

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Received: 31 March 2012; Accepted: 4 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transparent Conducting Oxides)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials are implemented into a wide variety of commercial devices because they possess a unique combination of high optical transparency and high electrical conductivity. Created during the processing of the TCOs, defects within the atomic-scale structure are responsible for their desirable optical and electrical properties. Therefore, studying the defect structure is essential to a better understanding of the behavior of transparent conductors. X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are powerful tools to investigate the atomic lattice structural defects in these materials. This review paper presents some of the current developments in the study of structural defects in n-type TCOs using x-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), pair distribution functions (PDFs), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF).
Keywords: transparent conducting oxide; indium-tin oxide; tin oxide; zinc oxide; defect; x-ray diffraction; neutron diffraction; EXAFS; XRF; PDF
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MDPI and ACS Style

González, G.B. Investigating the Defect Structures in Transparent Conducting Oxides Using X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques. Materials 2012, 5, 818-850.

AMA Style

González GB. Investigating the Defect Structures in Transparent Conducting Oxides Using X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques. Materials. 2012; 5(5):818-850.

Chicago/Turabian Style

González, Gabriela B. 2012. "Investigating the Defect Structures in Transparent Conducting Oxides Using X-ray and Neutron Scattering Techniques." Materials 5, no. 5: 818-850.


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