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Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications
Oerlikon USA, Inc., Business Unit Systems, 970 Carillon Dr., Suite 300, St. Petersburg, FL 33716, USA
OC Oerlikon Balzers AG, Business Unit Systems, Iramali 18, P.O. Box 1000, LI-9496 Balzers, Liechtenstein
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2012; in revised form: 26 March 2012 / Accepted: 28 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Abstract: New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO) target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111) underlayer enhanced the (001) orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111) textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100) Si wafers showed relatively larger (011) and diminished intensity (00ℓ) diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er) and resistivity (r) of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.
Keywords: RF sputtering; barium titanate; high-k
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Reynolds, G.J.; Kratzer, M.; Dubs, M.; Felzer, H.; Mamazza, R. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications. Materials 2012, 5, 575-589.
Reynolds GJ, Kratzer M, Dubs M, Felzer H, Mamazza R. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications. Materials. 2012; 5(4):575-589.
Reynolds, Glyn J.; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert. 2012. "Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications." Materials 5, no. 4: 575-589.