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Materials 2012, 5(6), 1005-1032; doi:10.3390/ma5061005
Review

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Frequency Dispersion of High-k Materials in Capacitance-Voltage Measurements

1
,
1,2,3,* , 2,3
,
3
,
3,4
,
3
 and
4
1 Department of Microelectronics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710016, China 2 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China 3 Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ, UK 4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2011 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-k Materials and Devices)
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Abstract

In capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, frequency dispersion in high-k dielectrics is often observed. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant (k-value), that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be assessed before suppressing the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion, such as the effects of the lossy interfacial layer (between the high-k thin film and silicon substrate) and the parasitic effects. The effect of the lossy interfacial layer on frequency dispersion was investigated and modeled based on a dual frequency technique. The significance of parasitic effects (including series resistance and the back metal contact of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor) on frequency dispersion was also studied. The effect of surface roughness on frequency dispersion is also discussed. After taking extrinsic frequency dispersion into account, the relaxation behavior can be modeled using the Curie-von Schweidler (CS) law, the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relationship and the Havriliak-Negami (HN) relationship. Dielectric relaxation mechanisms are also discussed.
Keywords: high-k dielectrics; frequency dispersion; dielectric relaxation high-k dielectrics; frequency dispersion; dielectric relaxation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tao, J.; Zhao, C.Z.; Zhao, C.; Taechakumput, P.; Werner, M.; Taylor, S.; Chalker, P.R. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Frequency Dispersion of High-k Materials in Capacitance-Voltage Measurements. Materials 2012, 5, 1005-1032.

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