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Materials 2017, 10(6), 643; doi:10.3390/ma10060643

Anti-Caries Effects of Dental Adhesives Containing Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylates with Different Chain Lengths

1
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China
2
Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China
3
Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering Division, Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Luis Calvo Guirado
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with different alkyl chain lengths (CL) on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and 16 and incorporated into adhesives. Micro-tensile bond strength and surface charge density were used to measure the physical properties of the adhesives. The proportion change in three-species biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii was tested using the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lactic acid assay, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, exopolysaccharide staining, live/dead staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transverse microradiography (TMR) were performed to study the anti-biofilm and anti-demineralization effects of the dental adhesives. The results showed that incorporating QAMs with different alkyl chain lengths into the adhesives had no obvious effect on the dentin bond strength. The adhesives containing QAMs with a longer alkyl chain developed healthier biofilms. The surface charge density, anti-biofilm, and anti-demineralization effects of the adhesives increased with a CL of the QAMs from 3 to 12, but decreased slightly with a CL from 12 to 16. In conclusion, adhesives containing QAMs with a tailored chain length are promising for preventing secondary caries in an “ecological way”. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkyl chain group; QAMs; antibacterial; demineralization alkyl chain group; QAMs; antibacterial; demineralization
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Han, Q.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.; Ge, Y.; Wang, S.; Li, M.; Ren, B.; Wang, H.; Zhang, K.; Xu, H.H.K.; Peng, X.; Feng, M.; Weir, M.D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, L. Anti-Caries Effects of Dental Adhesives Containing Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylates with Different Chain Lengths. Materials 2017, 10, 643.

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