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Special Issue "Dental Implant Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Luis Calvo Guirado

Full Professor of Oral Surgery and Implant dentistry. International Research Cathedra, International Dentistry Research Cathedra, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Murcia, Spain; Faculty of Health Sciences. Universidad Católica de Murcia. UCAM. Murcia. Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dental implant design; fibroblasts; biomedical engineering; synthesis and testing of biomaterials; bioceramics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental implant treatments can be short, simple, beneficial, and highly predictable. However, in some cases, treatment possibilities are limited as a result of individual patients’ physical characteristics—bone density, bone quality, or bone height.

This Special Issue will focus on the various conventional features of titanium, zirconia, alumina, and titanium-zirconia implants. Major sub-topics include surface treatments, implant design, and implant length. These must be considered in relation to the clinical aspects of different implant materials and the influence of their physical properties on treatment outcomes in different kinds of patients.

With regard to implant length, while research has mainly focused on conventional implants, several systematic reviews and clinical studies have reported that shorter dental implants are comparable to those of standard lengths. Investigations of short, compared to standard, implants have found that extra-short implants with new surface treatments, which only occupy cortical bone, can reduce crestal bone resorption and reduce micromotion compared with regular implants placed in trabecular and cortical bone.

Thus, this Special Issue will assess how certain implant features (cells, surfaces, design, etc.) can influence treatment outcomes among completely and partially edentulous patients rehabilitated with implant-supported fixed prostheses. In this context, the research published in this issue will consider the impact of surgical and prosthetic type on patients’ quality of life and satisfaction with their oral health status.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. José Luis Calvo Guirado
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Short dental implants
  • Extrashort dental implants
  • Implant surface
  • Implan tdesign
  • Titanium-zirconia implants
  • Nanocomposite dental implants

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effect of Clinically Relevant CAD/CAM Zirconia Polishing on Gingival Fibroblast Proliferation and Focal Adhesions
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1358; doi:10.3390/ma10121358
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
Mucosal seal formation around dental abutments is critical to the successful integration of dental implants into the human oral cavity. No information exists for how clinically relevant polishing procedures for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments affects cellular responses important to
[...] Read more.
Mucosal seal formation around dental abutments is critical to the successful integration of dental implants into the human oral cavity. No information exists for how clinically relevant polishing procedures for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments affects cellular responses important to mucosal seal formation. CAD/CAM zirconia was divided into four groups for clinically relevant polishing utilizing commercial polishing heads: control, coarse, coarse plus medium, and coarse plus medium plus fine. Surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical profilometry (OP). Subsequently, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were seeded onto the zirconia surfaces. Proliferation was measured via a quantitative SEM technique and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation status was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed an increase in proliferation on all polished surfaces as compared to the control. Phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine 397 (Y397) was up-modulated on the control surfaces. The associated cell adaptation is discussed. In all cases, FAK phosphorylation was greater at 24 h than 48 h. These results suggest that clinicians should be mindful of the effects of abutment polishing methodology, as this may have an impact on early mucosal seal formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Biological Properties of OGI Surfaces Positively Act on Osteogenic and Angiogenic Commitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1321; doi:10.3390/ma10111321
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Osteogenesis process displays a fundamental role during dental implant osteointegration. In the present work, we studied the influence of Osteon Growth Induction (OGI) surface properties on the angiogenic and osteogenic behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSC). MSC derived from dental pulp and HUVEC
[...] Read more.
Osteogenesis process displays a fundamental role during dental implant osteointegration. In the present work, we studied the influence of Osteon Growth Induction (OGI) surface properties on the angiogenic and osteogenic behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSC). MSC derived from dental pulp and HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were grown in on OGI titanium surfaces, and cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test and DNA quantification. Gene expression has been performed in order to evaluate the presence of mRNA related to endothelial and osteogenesis markers. Moreover, morphological and biochemical analyses of osteogenesis commitments has been performed. On OGI surfaces, MSC and HUVEC are able to proliferate. Gene expression profiler confirms that MSC on OGI surfaces are able to express endothelial and osteogenic markers, and that these expression are higher compared the expression on control surfaces. In conclusion On OGI surfaces proliferation, expression and morphological analyses of angiogenesis-associated markers in MSC are promoted. This process induces an increasing on their osteogenesis commitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Predictive Parameters of Oral Health Quality of Life in Complete Mandibular Denture Wearers Stabilized by Mini-Implants: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1197; doi:10.3390/ma10101197
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The frequent instability of mandibular removable complete dentures affects patient Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). An innovative therapeutic strategy used to improve stability involves placing four symphyseal mini-implants. This study was aimed at assessing OHRQoL over time in subjects in which
[...] Read more.
The frequent instability of mandibular removable complete dentures affects patient Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). An innovative therapeutic strategy used to improve stability involves placing four symphyseal mini-implants. This study was aimed at assessing OHRQoL over time in subjects in which mini-implants were placed and exploring if certain parameters could predict the evolution of their OHRQoL. The OHRQoL of subjects with dentures was assessed using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) before (T0), 2–6 months (T1), twelve months (T2) and twenty-four or more months (T3) after mini-implant setting. Age, gender and chewing ability were tested as explanatory variables for the change in OHRQoL with time. Thirteen women and six men were included (mean age: 69 ± 10 years). After treatment, mean GOHAI scores at T1, T2 and T3 increased significantly (p < 0.001). The GOHAI-Add mean score was not affected by age or gender. Baseline chewing ability impacted the “functional” and “pain and discomfort” fields of the mean GOHAI scores (p < 0.05). The OHRQoL quickly improved after mini-implant placement in complete denture wearers and then stabilized over time. Baseline chewing ability can be used as a predictive parameter of OHRQoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Acid Etching on the Nanomorphological Surface Characteristics and Activation Energy of Titanium Medical Materials
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1164; doi:10.3390/ma10101164
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to characterize the etching mechanism, namely, the etching rate and the activation energy, of a titanium dental implant in concentrated acid and to construct the relation between the activation energy and the nanoscale surface topographies. A commercially-pure
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the etching mechanism, namely, the etching rate and the activation energy, of a titanium dental implant in concentrated acid and to construct the relation between the activation energy and the nanoscale surface topographies. A commercially-pure titanium (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V ELI surface were tested by shot blasting (pressure, grain size, blasting distance, blasting angle, and time) and acid etching to study its topographical, weight loss, surface roughness, and activation energy. An Arrhenius equation was applied to derive the activation energy for the dissolution of CP Ti/Ti-6Al-4V ELI in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) at different temperatures. In addition, white-light interferometry was applied to measure the surface nanomorphology of the implant to obtain 2D or 3D roughness parameters (Sa, Sq, and St). The nanopore size that formed after etching was approximately 100–500 nm. The surface roughness of CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V ELI decreased as the activation energy decreased but weight loss increased. Ti-6Al-4V ELI has a higher level of activation energy than Ti in HCl, which results in lower surface roughness after acid etching. This study also indicates that etching using a concentrated hydrochloric acid provided superior surface modification effects in titanium compared with H2SO4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Porcine Bone Scaffolds Adsorb Growth Factors Secreted by MSCs and Improve Bone Tissue Repair
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1054; doi:10.3390/ma10091054
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
An ideal tissue-engineered bone graft should have both excellent pro-osteogenesis and pro-angiogenesis properties to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo. To meet this goal, in this work a porcine bone scaffold was successfully used as a Trojan horse to store growth factors
[...] Read more.
An ideal tissue-engineered bone graft should have both excellent pro-osteogenesis and pro-angiogenesis properties to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo. To meet this goal, in this work a porcine bone scaffold was successfully used as a Trojan horse to store growth factors produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This new scaffold showed a time-dependent release of bioactive growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in vitro. The biological effect of the growth factors-adsorbed scaffold on the in vitro commitment of MSCs into osteogenic and endothelial cell phenotypes has been evaluated. In addition, we have investigated the activity of growth factor-impregnated granules in the repair of critical-size defects in rat calvaria by means of histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. Based on the results of our work bone tissue formation and markers for bone and vascularization were significantly increased by the growth factor-enriched bone granules after implantation. This suggests that the controlled release of active growth factors from porcine bone granules can enhance and promote bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Release of VEGF from Dental Implant Improves Osteogenetic Process: Preliminary In Vitro Tests
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1052; doi:10.3390/ma10091052
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: During osseointegration process, the presence of an inflammatory event could negatively influence the proper osteogenetic ability of the implant surface. In order to reduce this possibility, an implementation of angiogenetic event through the release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) can be
[...] Read more.
Introduction: During osseointegration process, the presence of an inflammatory event could negatively influence the proper osteogenetic ability of the implant surface. In order to reduce this possibility, an implementation of angiogenetic event through the release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) can be a tool as co-factor for osteoblastic differentiation. In this paper, novel dental implant surfaces enriched with VEGF have been tested. Material and methods: The ability of VEGF-enriched titanium implants to improve the osteogenetic properties of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), also in the presence of an inflammatory environment, have been in vitro tested. Molecular biology, morphological analyses, and biochemical tests have been performed in order to confirm biological properties of these surfaces. Results: Our results confirm that the presence of VEGF onto the implant surface is able not only to protect the cells from in vitro aging and from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) damage, but it also improves their osteogenic and endothelial differentiation, even in the presence of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: This study establishes a biologically powerful novel tool that could enhance bone repair in dental implant integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Sterilization Improves Initial Osteoblast Responses on Sandpaper-Polished Titanium
Materials 2017, 10(7), 812; doi:10.3390/ma10070812
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Hydrocarbon contamination accumulated on titanium (Ti) implant surfaces during storage and sterilization is unavoidable and difficult to remove. It impairs the bioactivity of implants, restricts initial interactions between implants and the surrounding biological environment, and has become a common challenge for Ti implants.
[...] Read more.
Hydrocarbon contamination accumulated on titanium (Ti) implant surfaces during storage and sterilization is unavoidable and difficult to remove. It impairs the bioactivity of implants, restricts initial interactions between implants and the surrounding biological environment, and has become a common challenge for Ti implants. To overcome this problem, sterilization was considered as the final surface modification and a novel method, hydrothermal sterilization (HS), was proposed. Briefly, stored sandpaper-polished Ti specimens were sterilized in a glass container with pure water at 121 °C for 20 min and kept in the same water until utilization. As a control, another group of specimens was sterilized with conventional autoclaving (AC) at 121 °C for 20 min and stored in sterilization pouches after being dried at 60 °C. Compared with AC, HS deposited numerous nano-sized particles on the substrates, reduced the atomic percentage of the surface carbon, and transformed the Ti surface to a super hydrophilic status. HS also increased the attachment rate, spread, proliferation, and the mineralized nodule areas of rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts. These results suggest that HS enhances the bioactivity of Ti implants for osteoblasts, and that this biofunctionalization was attributed to nanostructure construction, hydrophilic conversion, and the effective removal of hydrocarbons. Hydrothermal sterilization is proposed to be used as a universal sterilization method for all kinds of titanium implants without apatite coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant
Materials 2017, 10(7), 758; doi:10.3390/ma10070758
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S) cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S) cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23) obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC) percentage values (better quality, closer contact) in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic). The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Implant Stability of Biological Hydroxyapatites Used in Dentistry
Materials 2017, 10(6), 644; doi:10.3390/ma10060644
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first six months of healing by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first six months of healing by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement and healing sites. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 10 patients in a split-mouth design using a bobine HA (BBM) as a control and porcine HA (PBM). Six months after sinus lifting, 60 implants were placed in the posterior maxilla. The ISQ was recorded on the day of surgery from RFA at T1 (baseline), T2 (three months), and T3 (six months). Statistically significant differences were found in the ISQ values during the evaluation period. The ISQ (baseline) was 63.8 ± 2.97 for BBM and 62.6 ± 2.11 for PBM. The ISQ (T2) was ~73.5 ± 4.21 and 67 ± 4.99, respectively. The ISQ (T3) was ~74.65 ± 2.93 and 72.9 ± 2.63, respectively. All of the used HAs provide osseointegration and statistical increases in the ISQ at baseline, T2 and T3 (follow-up), respectively. The BBM, sintered at high temperature with high crystallinity and low porosity, presented higher stability, which demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of a bone substitute material clearly influence implant stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Caries Effects of Dental Adhesives Containing Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylates with Different Chain Lengths
Materials 2017, 10(6), 643; doi:10.3390/ma10060643
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with different alkyl chain lengths (CL) on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and
[...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with different alkyl chain lengths (CL) on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and 16 and incorporated into adhesives. Micro-tensile bond strength and surface charge density were used to measure the physical properties of the adhesives. The proportion change in three-species biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii was tested using the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lactic acid assay, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, exopolysaccharide staining, live/dead staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transverse microradiography (TMR) were performed to study the anti-biofilm and anti-demineralization effects of the dental adhesives. The results showed that incorporating QAMs with different alkyl chain lengths into the adhesives had no obvious effect on the dentin bond strength. The adhesives containing QAMs with a longer alkyl chain developed healthier biofilms. The surface charge density, anti-biofilm, and anti-demineralization effects of the adhesives increased with a CL of the QAMs from 3 to 12, but decreased slightly with a CL from 12 to 16. In conclusion, adhesives containing QAMs with a tailored chain length are promising for preventing secondary caries in an “ecological way”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of a New Al2O3/Ce–TZP Ceramic Nanocomposite Dental Implant: A Pilot Study in Dogs.
Materials 2017, 10(6), 614; doi:10.3390/ma10060614
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although titanium remains as the prevalent material in dental implant manufacturing new zirconia-based materials that overcome the major drawbacks of the standard 3Y–yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) are now emerging. In this study, a new ceramic nanocomposite made of alumina and ceria-stabilized TZP (ZCe-A)
[...] Read more.
Although titanium remains as the prevalent material in dental implant manufacturing new zirconia-based materials that overcome the major drawbacks of the standard 3Y–yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) are now emerging. In this study, a new ceramic nanocomposite made of alumina and ceria-stabilized TZP (ZCe-A) has been used to produce dental implants with the mechanic and topographic characteristics of a pilot implant design to evaluate bone and soft tissue integration in a dog model (n = 5). Histological cross-section analysis of the implanted ceramic fixations (n = 15) showed not only perfect biocompatibility, but also a high rate of osseous integration (defined as the percentage of bone to implant contact) and soft tissue attachment. This clinical success, in combination with the superior mechanical properties achieved by this Al2O3/Ce-TZP nanocomposite, may place this material as an improved alternative of traditional 3Y-TZP dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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