Energies 2013, 6(5), 2562-2582; doi:10.3390/en6052562
Article

Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

Division of Electricity, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, Uppsala 751 25, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2013; in revised form: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from the Ocean - Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Abstract: Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted by a full scale operating Wave Energy Converter (WEC) in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University in Sweden. A minor review of the hearing capabilities of fish and marine mammals is presented to aid in the conclusions of impact from anthropogenic sound. A hydrophone was deployed to the seabed in the Lysekil research site park at distance of 20 and 40 m away from two operational WECs. The measurements were performed in the spring of 2011. The results showed that the main noise was a transient noise with most of its energy in frequencies below 1 kHz. These results indicate that several marine organisms (fish and mammals) will be able to hear the operating WECs of a distance of at least 20 m.
Keywords: direct driven wave energy converter; underwater noise; environmental impact; renewable energy

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haikonen, K.; Sundberg, J.; Leijon, M. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts. Energies 2013, 6, 2562-2582.

AMA Style

Haikonen K, Sundberg J, Leijon M. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts. Energies. 2013; 6(5):2562-2582.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats. 2013. "Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts." Energies 6, no. 5: 2562-2582.

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