Energies 2013, 6(5), 2562-2582; doi:10.3390/en6052562
Article

Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

Received: 5 February 2013; in revised form: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from the Ocean - Wave and Tidal Energy)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted by a full scale operating Wave Energy Converter (WEC) in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University in Sweden. A minor review of the hearing capabilities of fish and marine mammals is presented to aid in the conclusions of impact from anthropogenic sound. A hydrophone was deployed to the seabed in the Lysekil research site park at distance of 20 and 40 m away from two operational WECs. The measurements were performed in the spring of 2011. The results showed that the main noise was a transient noise with most of its energy in frequencies below 1 kHz. These results indicate that several marine organisms (fish and mammals) will be able to hear the operating WECs of a distance of at least 20 m.
Keywords: direct driven wave energy converter; underwater noise; environmental impact; renewable energy
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1716 KB, uploaded 21 May 2013 11:07 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Haikonen, K.; Sundberg, J.; Leijon, M. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts. Energies 2013, 6, 2562-2582.

AMA Style

Haikonen K, Sundberg J, Leijon M. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts. Energies. 2013; 6(5):2562-2582.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats. 2013. "Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts." Energies 6, no. 5: 2562-2582.

Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert