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Energies, Volume 3, Issue 11 (November 2010), Pages 1704-1830

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of a Double-effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with a Silica Gel/Water Working Pair
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1704-1720; doi:10.3390/en3111704
Received: 19 September 2010 / Revised: 2 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 26 October 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A numerical investigation of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle is examined in this manuscript. The proposed cycle is based on the cascading adsorption cycle, where condensation heat that is produced in the top cycle is utilized as the driving heat source for the
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A numerical investigation of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle is examined in this manuscript. The proposed cycle is based on the cascading adsorption cycle, where condensation heat that is produced in the top cycle is utilized as the driving heat source for the bottom cycle. The results show that the double-effect cycle produces a higher coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to that of the conventional single-stage cycle for driving temperatures between 100 °C and 150 °C in which the average cycle chilled water temperature is fixed at 9 °C. Moreover, the COP of the double-effect cycle is more than twice that of the single-stage cycle when the temperature reaches 130 °C. It is also observed that the adsorbent mass ratio of the high temperature cycle (HTC) to the low temperature cycle (LTC) affects the performance of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Photovoltaic Device Using an Electrolyte Containing Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1721-1727; doi:10.3390/en3111721
Received: 27 September 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of bio-photovoltaic devices with a monolayer of the immobilized photosynthetic reaction center (RC) is generally low because of weak light absorption and poor charge transfer between the RC and the electrode. In this paper, a new bio-photovoltaic device is described in
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The performance of bio-photovoltaic devices with a monolayer of the immobilized photosynthetic reaction center (RC) is generally low because of weak light absorption and poor charge transfer between the RC and the electrode. In this paper, a new bio-photovoltaic device is described in which the RC is dissolved in the electrolyte of an electrochemical cell. The charges generated by the illuminated RC are transferred to electrodes via mediators. The difference between the reaction rates of two types of mediator at the electrode surfaces determines the direction of the photocurrent in the device. Experimental results show that the magnitude of the photocurrent is proportional to the incident light intensity, and the current increases nonlinearly with an increase in the RC concentration in the electrolyte. With further optimization this approach should lead to devices with improved light absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds for Photo-Harvesting Applications)
Open AccessArticle Electrostatic Discharge Current Linear Approach and Circuit Design Method
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1728-1740; doi:10.3390/en3111728
Received: 14 October 2010 / Revised: 3 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 November 2010 / Published: 8 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Electrostatic Discharge phenomenon is a great threat to all electronic devices and ICs. An electric charge passing rapidly from a charged body to another can seriously harm the last one. However, there is a lack in a linear mathematical approach which will
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The Electrostatic Discharge phenomenon is a great threat to all electronic devices and ICs. An electric charge passing rapidly from a charged body to another can seriously harm the last one. However, there is a lack in a linear mathematical approach which will make it possible to design a circuit capable of producing such a sophisticated current waveform. The commonly accepted Electrostatic Discharge current waveform is the one set by the IEC 61000-4-2. However, the over-simplified circuit included in the same standard is incapable of producing such a waveform. Treating the Electrostatic Discharge current waveform of the IEC 61000-4-2 as reference, an approximation method, based on Prony’s method, is developed and applied in order to obtain a linear system’s response. Considering a known input, a method to design a circuit, able to generate this ESD current waveform in presented. The circuit synthesis assumes ideal active elements. A simulation is carried out using the PSpice software. Full article
Open AccessArticle Scale Effects on Quasi-Steady Solid Rocket Internal Ballistic Behaviour
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1790-1804; doi:10.3390/en3111790
Received: 23 October 2010 / Revised: 4 November 2010 / Accepted: 11 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor’s performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program
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The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor’s performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size). The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor’s internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor’s internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion for Aerospace Propulsion)
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapors with Nano Metal Oxides: An Analytical Py-GC/MS Study
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1805-1820; doi:10.3390/en3111805
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 2 November 2010 / Accepted: 11 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fast pyrolysis of poplar wood followed with catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors was performed using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The catalysts applied in this study were nano MgO, CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3, NiO and ZnO. These
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Fast pyrolysis of poplar wood followed with catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors was performed using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The catalysts applied in this study were nano MgO, CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3, NiO and ZnO. These catalysts displayed different catalytic capabilities towards the pyrolytic products. The catalysis by CaO significantly reduced the levels of phenols and anhydrosugars, and eliminated the acids, while it increased the formation of cyclopentanones, hydrocarbons and several light compounds. ZnO was a mild catalyst, as it only slightly altered the pyrolytic products. The other four catalysts all decreased the linear aldehydes dramatically, while the increased the ketones and cyclopentanones. They also reduced the anhydrosugars, except for NiO. Moreover, the catalysis by Fe2O3 resulted in the formation of various hydrocarbons. However, none of these catalysts except CaO were able to greatly reduce the acids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1821-1830; doi:10.3390/en3111821
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then
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Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule). The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1741-1789; doi:10.3390/en3111741
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 29 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 10 November 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) best utilizing the
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Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Fusion)

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