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Energies, Volume 3, Issue 10 (October 2010), Pages 1639-1703

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Robust State of Charge Estimation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Framework and Algorithms
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1654-1672; doi:10.3390/en3101654
Received: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). Suffering from various interference in vehicle driving environment and model uncertainties due to the strong time-variant property and inconsistency of [...] Read more.
State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). Suffering from various interference in vehicle driving environment and model uncertainties due to the strong time-variant property and inconsistency of batteries, the existing typical SoC estimators such as coulomb counting and extended Kalman filter cannot perform their theoretically optimal efficacy in practical applications. Aiming at enhancing the robustness of SoC estimation and improving accuracy under the real driving conditions with noises and uncertainties, this paper proposes a framework consisting of (1) an adaptive-κ nonlinear diffusion filter to reduce the noise in current measurement, (2) a self-learning strategy to estimate and remove the zero-drift, (3) a coulomb counting algorithm to realize open-loop SoC estimation, (4) an H filter to implement closed-loop robust estimation, and (5) a data fusion unite to achieve the final estimation by integrating the advantages of the two SoC estimators. The availability and efficacy of each component have been demonstrated based on comparative studiesin simulation with the conventional approaches respectively, under the testing conditions of noises with various signal-noise-ratios, varying zero-drifts, and different model errors. The overall framework has also been verified to rationally and efficiently combine these components and achieve robust estimation results in the presence of kinds of noises and uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1673-1690; doi:10.3390/en3101673
Received: 20 August 2010 / Revised: 24 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, [...] Read more.
Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H robust control, a H2/H controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1691-1703; doi:10.3390/en3101691
Received: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better [...] Read more.
Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-sustainable Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Simple Analytical Approach to Simulate Underbalanced- drilling in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs—The Effect of Short Overbalanced Conditions and Time Effect
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1639-1653; doi:10.3390/en3101639
Received: 6 September 2010 / Revised: 20 September 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 29 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes an analytical approach to investigate the nature of short overbalanced conditions and time effects during underbalanced drilling (UBD) in a naturally fractured reservoir. This study uses an analytical model which is developed for kinetic invasion of mud into the [...] Read more.
This paper describes an analytical approach to investigate the nature of short overbalanced conditions and time effects during underbalanced drilling (UBD) in a naturally fractured reservoir. This study uses an analytical model which is developed for kinetic invasion of mud into the fractures. The model is based on fluid flow between two parallel plates, which is further extended to model the fluid flow in a fractured formation. The effect of short overbalanced pressure and the time effect during UBD as well as the aspects of well productivity and flow efficiency are explained. This model is an Excel-based program and provides a fast and convenient tool for analysis and evaluation of drilling conditions (mud properties, time, and pressure of drilling) in a fractured formation. The model can also predict the impact of the fracture and mud properties on the depth of invasion in the fractured formations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil Recovery)

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