Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2839-2850; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082839
Article

Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49

1,2,* email, 3,4email, 5,6email, 5email, 5,6email, 1email, 7email, 8email and 3,4,5,9email
Received: 3 July 2012; in revised form: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Determinants of Oral Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Studies have found both genetic and environmental influences on chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among previously identified genetic variants, smoking status, and two periodontal disease-related phenotypes (PSR1 and PSR2) in 625 Caucasian adults (aged 18–49 years). The PSR Index was used to classify participants as affected or unaffected under the PSR1 and PSR2 phenotype definitions. Using logistic regression, we found that the form of the relationship varied by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): For rs10457525 and rs12630931, the effects of smoking and genotype on risk were additive; whereas for rs10457526 and rs733048, smoking was not independently associated with affected status once genotype was taken into consideration. In contrast, smoking moderated the relationships of rs3870371 and rs733048 with affected status such that former and never smokers with select genotypes were at increased genetic risk. Thus, for several groups, knowledge of genotype may refine the risk prediction over that which can be determined by knowledge of smoking status alone. Future studies should replicate these findings. These findings provide the foundation for the exploration of novel pathways by which periodontitis may occur.
Keywords: adult; chronic periodontitis; genetics; genomics; smoking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polk, D.E.; Wang, X.; Feingold, E.; Shaffer, J.R.; Weeks, D.E.; Weyant, R.J.; Crout, R.J.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L. Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2839-2850.

AMA Style

Polk DE, Wang X, Feingold E, Shaffer JR, Weeks DE, Weyant RJ, Crout RJ, McNeil DW, Marazita ML. Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(8):2839-2850.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polk, Deborah E.; Wang, Xiaojing; Feingold, Eleanor; Shaffer, John R.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Marazita, Mary L. 2012. "Effects of Smoking and Genotype on the PSR Index of Periodontal Disease in Adults Aged 18–49." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 8: 2839-2850.

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