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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4223-4240; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114223
Article

Integral Dose and Radiation-Induced Secondary Malignancies: Comparison between Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy

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Received: 28 August 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 19 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Cancer Risk)
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Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to compare the integral dose received by non-tumor tissue (NTID) in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with modified LINAC with that received by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), estimating possible correlations between NTID and radiation-induced secondary malignancy risk. Eight patients with intrathoracic lesions were treated with SBRT, 23 Gy × 1 fraction. All patients were then replanned for 3D-CRT, maintaining the same target coverage and applying a dose scheme of 2 Gy × 32 fractions. The dose equivalence between the different treatment modalities was achieved assuming α/β = 10Gy for tumor tissue and imposing the same biological effective dose (BED) on the target (BED = 76Gy10). Total NTIDs for both techniques was calculated considering α/β = 3Gy for healthy tissue. Excess absolute cancer risk (EAR) was calculated for various organs using a mechanistic model that includes fractionation effects. A paired two-tailed Student t-test was performed to determine statistically significant differences between the data (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that despite the fact that for all patients integral dose is higher for SBRT treatments than 3D-CRT (p = 0.002), secondary cancer risk associated to SBRT patients is significantly smaller than that calculated for 3D-CRT (p = 0.001). This suggests that integral dose is not a good estimator for quantifying cancer induction. Indeed, for the model and parameters used, hypofractionated radiotherapy has the potential for secondary cancer reduction. The development of reliable secondary cancer risk models seems to be a key issue in fractionated radiotherapy. Further assessments of integral doses received with 3D-CRT and other special techniques are also strongly encouraged.
Keywords: stereotactic body radiation therapy; integral dose; linear-quadratic model; biologically effective dose; BED; radio-induced secondary malignancies stereotactic body radiation therapy; integral dose; linear-quadratic model; biologically effective dose; BED; radio-induced secondary malignancies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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D'Arienzo, M.; Masciullo, S.G.; Sanctis, V.D.; Osti, M.F.; Chiacchiararelli, L.; Enrici, R.M. Integral Dose and Radiation-Induced Secondary Malignancies: Comparison between Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4223-4240.

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