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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4210-4222; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114210
Article

Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

1,* , 2
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 and 4
Received: 27 September 2012; in revised form: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
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Abstract: Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS) due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH) levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.
Keywords: premenstrual symptoms; primary dysmenorrheal; vitamin D; parathyroid hormone; dairy products premenstrual symptoms; primary dysmenorrheal; vitamin D; parathyroid hormone; dairy products
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Obeidat, B.A.; Alchalabi, H.A.; Abdul-Razzak, K.K.; Al-Farras, M.I. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4210-4222.

AMA Style

Obeidat BA, Alchalabi HA, Abdul-Razzak KK, Al-Farras MI. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(11):4210-4222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Obeidat, Bayan A.; Alchalabi, Haifa A.; Abdul-Razzak, Khalid K.; Al-Farras, Mudhaffar I. 2012. "Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 11: 4210-4222.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert