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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2854-2875; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072854
Review

A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

1,2,* , 2,3
 and 1,3
Received: 3 June 2011; in revised form: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
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Abstract: The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health.
Keywords: climate change; DPSEEA; environmental health; frameworks; indicators; monitoring; policy climate change; DPSEEA; environmental health; frameworks; indicators; monitoring; policy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hambling, T.; Weinstein, P.; Slaney, D. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2854-2875.

AMA Style

Hambling T, Weinstein P, Slaney D. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(7):2854-2875.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David. 2011. "A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 7: 2854-2875.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert