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A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health
Institute of Environmental Science & Research Limited, 34 Kenepuru Drive, Porirua 5022, New Zealand
School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston, Queensland 4600, Australia
Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2011; in revised form: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Abstract: The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health.
Keywords: climate change; DPSEEA; environmental health; frameworks; indicators; monitoring; policy
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Hambling, T.; Weinstein, P.; Slaney, D. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2854-2875.
Hambling T, Weinstein P, Slaney D. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(7):2854-2875.
Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David. 2011. "A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 7: 2854-2875.