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Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The University of Georgia, 3111 Miller Plant Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Soil, Plant, and Water Laboratory, 2400 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2011; in revised form: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 11 May 2011
Abstract: Application of poultry litter (PL) to soil may lead to nitrogen (N) losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P). Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter pH and by retaining litter-derived P, respectively. This study evaluated the effect of acidified biochars from pine chips (PC) and peanut hulls (PH) on NH3 losses and inorganic N and P released from surface-applied or incorporated PL. Poultry litter with or without acidified biochars was surface-applied or incorporated into the soil and incubated for 21 d. Volatilized NH3 was determined by trapping it in acid. Inorganic N and P were determined by leaching the soil with 0.01 M of CaCl2 during the study and by extracting it with 1 M KCl after incubation. Acidified biochars reduced NH3 losses by 58 to 63% with surface-applied PL, and by 56 to 60% with incorporated PL. Except for PH biochar, which caused a small increase in leached NH4+-N with incorporated PL, acidified biochars had no effect on leached or KCl-extractable inorganic N and P from surface-applied or incorporated PL. These results suggest that acidified biochars may decrease NH3 losses from PL but may not reduce the potential for P loss in surface runoff from soils receiving PL.
Keywords: acidified biochar; poultry litter; inorganic nitrogen; inorganic phosphorus; ammonia volatilization
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Doydora, S.A.; Cabrera, M.L.; Das, K.C.; Gaskin, J.W.; Sonon, L.S.; Miller, W.P. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1491-1502.
Doydora SA, Cabrera ML, Das KC, Gaskin JW, Sonon LS, Miller WP. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(5):1491-1502.
Doydora, Sarah A.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Das, Keshav C.; Gaskin, Julia W.; Sonon, Leticia S.; Miller, William P. 2011. "Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 5: 1491-1502.