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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1478-1490; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051478
Article

Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders

1,* , 2
, 1
, 1
 and 2
Received: 5 April 2011; Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 10 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: Background: Workers chronically exposed to manganese in welding fumes may develop an extra-pyramidal syndrome with postural and action tremors. Objectives: To determine the utility of tremor analysis in distinguishing tremors among workers exposed to welding fumes, patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD) and Essential Tremor (ET). Methods: Retrospective study of recorded tremor in subjects from academic Movement Disorders Clinics and Welders. Quantitative tremor analysis was performed and associated with clinical status. Results: Postural tremor intensity was increased in Welders and ET and was associated with visibly greater amplitude of tremor with arms extended. Mean center frequencies (Cf) of welders and patients with ET were significantly higher than the mean Cf of PD subjects. Although both the welders and the ET group exhibited a higher Cf with arms extended, welders could be distinguished from the ET subjects by a significantly lower Cf of the rest tremor than that measured in ET subjects. Conclusions: In the context of an appropriate exposure history and neurological examination, tremor analysis may be useful in the diagnosis of manganese-related extra-pyramidal manifestations.
Keywords: manganese; toxicity; Parkinson’s Disease; tremor; accelerometer manganese; toxicity; Parkinson’s Disease; tremor; accelerometer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanchez-Ramos, J.; Reimer, D.; Zesiewicz, T.; Sullivan, K.; Nausieda, P.A. Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1478-1490.

AMA Style

Sanchez-Ramos J, Reimer D, Zesiewicz T, Sullivan K, Nausieda PA. Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(5):1478-1490.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Reimer, Dacy; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Sullivan, Kelly; Nausieda, Paul A. 2011. "Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 5: 1478-1490.


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