Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 648-682; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030648
Review

Recent Contributions of Air- and Biomarkers to the Control of Secondhand Smoke (SHS): A Review

Département of Lung Diseases, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place de l'Université, B 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Received: 13 December 2010; in revised form: 12 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Abstract: Since the publication of the US Surgeon General Reports in 1996 and 2006 and the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency in 1999, many reports have appeared on the contribution of air and biomarkers to different facets of the secondhand smoke (SHS) issue, which are the targets of this review. These recent studies have allowed earlier epidemiological surveys to be biologically validated, and their plausibility demonstrated, quantified the levels of exposure to SHS before the bans in various environments, showed the deficiencies of mechanical control methods and of partial bans and the frequently correct implementation of the efficient total bans. More stringent regulation remains necessary in the public domain (workplaces, hospitality venues, transport sector, etc.) in many countries. Personal voluntary protection efforts against SHS are also needed in the private domain (homes, private cars). The effects of SHS on the cardiovascular, respiratory and neuropsychic systems, on pregnancy and fertility, on cancers and on SHS genotoxicity are confirmed through experimental human studies and through the relationship between markers and prevalence of disease or of markers of disease risk.
Keywords: secondhand smoke; air- and biomarkers; tobacco control

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prignot, J.J. Recent Contributions of Air- and Biomarkers to the Control of Secondhand Smoke (SHS): A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 648-682.

AMA Style

Prignot JJ. Recent Contributions of Air- and Biomarkers to the Control of Secondhand Smoke (SHS): A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(3):648-682.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prignot, Jacques J. 2011. "Recent Contributions of Air- and Biomarkers to the Control of Secondhand Smoke (SHS): A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 3: 648-682.

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