Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 629-647; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030629
Review

Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

Received: 14 January 2011; Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 24 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Environmental Research and Public Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Procedures for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, combined and cumulative exposures are under development, but the scientific database needs considerable expansion. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge on how to monitor effects of complex exposures, and there are few reviews on biomonitoring complex exposures. In this review we summarize articles in which biomonitoring techniques have been developed and used. Most examples describe techniques for biomonitoring effects which may detect early changes induced by many chemical stressors and which have the potential to accelerate data gathering. Some emphasis is put on endocrine disrupters acting via epigenetic mechanisms and on carcinogens. Solid evidence shows that these groups of chemicals can interact and even produce synergistic effects. They may act during sensitive time windows and biomonitoring their effects in epidemiological studies is a challenging task.
Keywords: biomarkers; combined exposure; chemical mixture; occupational exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silins, I.; Högberg, J. Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 629-647.

AMA Style

Silins I, Högberg J. Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(3):629-647.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan. 2011. "Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 3: 629-647.

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