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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(12), 4608-4622; doi:10.3390/ijerph8124608
Article

An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

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Received: 11 November 2011; in revised form: 2 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 December 2011 / Published: 12 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
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Abstract: An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (n = 88) and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17). Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM) of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR) gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and a decrease in the weight for mixing relative to the new weights assigned for application methods. The weighting factors for the revised algorithm now incorporate exposure measurements taken on Agricultural Health Study (AHS) participants for the application methods and personal protective equipment (PPE) commonly reported by study participants.
Keywords: pesticides; exposure algorithm; epidemiology; 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; captan pesticides; exposure algorithm; epidemiology; 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; captan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Coble, J.; Thomas, K.W.; Hines, C.J.; Hoppin, J.A.; Dosemeci, M.; Curwin, B.; Lubin, J.H.; Freeman, L.E.B.; Blair, A.; Sandler, D.P.; Alavanja, M.C.R. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4608-4622.

AMA Style

Coble J, Thomas KW, Hines CJ, Hoppin JA, Dosemeci M, Curwin B, Lubin JH, Freeman LEB, Blair A, Sandler DP, Alavanja MCR. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(12):4608-4622.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coble, Joseph; Thomas, Kent W.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Curwin, Brian; Lubin, Jay H.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R. 2011. "An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 12: 4608-4622.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert