Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(12), 4623-4648; doi:10.3390/ijerph8124623
Review

Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves

1,2,* email, 3email and 1email
Received: 27 September 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 5 December 2011 / Published: 12 December 2011
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [420 KB, updated 19 June 2014; original version uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Introduction: With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. Objective: To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. Methods: We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Findings and Conclusions: Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.
Keywords: heatwave; adaptation; early warning system; prevention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Lowe, D.; Ebi, K.L.; Forsberg, B. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4623-4648.

AMA Style

Lowe D, Ebi KL, Forsberg B. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(12):4623-4648.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L.; Forsberg, Bertil. 2011. "Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 12: 4623-4648.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert