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Chelation in Metal Intoxication
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2010; in revised form: 22 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 28 June 2010
Abstract: Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.
Keywords: chelating agents; combination therapy; oxidative stress; antioxidant; succimer; monoesters; heavy metals
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MDPI and ACS Style
Flora, S.J.; Pachauri, V. Chelation in Metal Intoxication. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2745-2788.
Flora SJ, Pachauri V. Chelation in Metal Intoxication. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(7):2745-2788.
Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu. 2010. "Chelation in Metal Intoxication." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 7: 2745-2788.