Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(12), 4267-4277; doi:10.3390/ijerph7124267
Review

Antimony Toxicity

Received: 15 November 2010; Accepted: 15 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.
Keywords: antimony; toxicity; leishmaniasis; occupational hazard
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sundar, S.; Chakravarty, J. Antimony Toxicity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 4267-4277.

AMA Style

Sundar S, Chakravarty J. Antimony Toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(12):4267-4277.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya. 2010. "Antimony Toxicity." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 12: 4267-4277.

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