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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(2), 364-379; doi:10.3390/ijerph7020364
Review

Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

1,*  and 1,2
Received: 16 December 2009; Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 27 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Abstract: Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.
Keywords: ethanol; pregnancy outcome; fetal alcohol syndrome ethanol; pregnancy outcome; fetal alcohol syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ornoy, A.; Ergaz, Z. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 364-379.

AMA Style

Ornoy A, Ergaz Z. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(2):364-379.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit. 2010. "Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 2: 364-379.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert