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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(2), 473-493; doi:10.3390/ijerph7020473
Review

Biological Contribution to Social Influences on Alcohol Drinking: Evidence from Animal Models

 and *
Received: 31 December 2009; Accepted: 8 February 2010 / Published: 11 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Abstract: Social factors have a tremendous influence on instances of heavy drinking and in turn impact public health. However, it is extremely difficult to assess whether this influence is only a cultural phenomenon or has biological underpinnings. Research in non-human primates demonstrates that the way individuals are brought up during early development affects their future predisposition for heavy drinking, and research in rats demonstrates that social isolation, crowding or low social ranking can lead to increased alcohol intake, while social defeat can decrease drinking. Neurotransmitter mechanisms contributing to these effects (i.e., serotonin, GABA, dopamine) have begun to be elucidated. However, these studies do not exclude the possibility that social effects on drinking occur through generalized stress responses to negative social environments. Alcohol intake can also be elevated in positive social situations, for example, in rats following an interaction with an intoxicated peer. Recent studies have also begun to adapt a new rodent species, the prairie vole, to study the role of social environment in alcohol drinking. Prairie voles demonstrate a high degree of social affiliation between individuals, and many of the neurochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of these social behaviors (for example, dopamine, central vasopressin and the corticotropin releasing factor system) are also known to be involved in regulation of alcohol intake. Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist approved as a pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients, has recently been shown to decrease both partner preference and alcohol preference in voles. These findings strongly suggest that mechanisms by which social factors influence drinking have biological roots, and can be studied using rapidly developing new animal models.
Keywords: ethanol; affiliative behavior; animal model ethanol; affiliative behavior; animal model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Anacker, A.M.; Ryabinin, A.E. Biological Contribution to Social Influences on Alcohol Drinking: Evidence from Animal Models. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 473-493.

AMA Style

Anacker AM, Ryabinin AE. Biological Contribution to Social Influences on Alcohol Drinking: Evidence from Animal Models. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(2):473-493.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anacker, Allison M.J.; Ryabinin, Andrey E. 2010. "Biological Contribution to Social Influences on Alcohol Drinking: Evidence from Animal Models." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 2: 473-493.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert