Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1778-1798; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061778
Review

Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

1 ITENI Laboratory, CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy 2 Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy 3 MRI Laboratory, G. Monasterio Foundation and CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy 4 Cell Biology and Cytogenetics Unit, CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2009; Accepted: 5 June 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: How Safe Is Cardiac Imaging?)
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Abstract: Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients’ and workers’ safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle.
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; MRI safety; genotoxic effects

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartwig, V.; Giovannetti, G.; Vanello, N.; Lombardi, M.; Landini, L.; Simi, S. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1778-1798.

AMA Style

Hartwig V, Giovannetti G, Vanello N, Lombardi M, Landini L, Simi S. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(6):1778-1798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartwig, Valentina; Giovannetti, Giulio; Vanello, Nicola; Lombardi, Massimo; Landini, Luigi; Simi, Silvana. 2009. "Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 6: 1778-1798.

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