Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1778-1798; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061778
Review

Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

Received: 4 May 2009; Accepted: 5 June 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: How Safe Is Cardiac Imaging?)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients’ and workers’ safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle.
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; MRI safety; genotoxic effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartwig, V.; Giovannetti, G.; Vanello, N.; Lombardi, M.; Landini, L.; Simi, S. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1778-1798.

AMA Style

Hartwig V, Giovannetti G, Vanello N, Lombardi M, Landini L, Simi S. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(6):1778-1798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartwig, Valentina; Giovannetti, Giulio; Vanello, Nicola; Lombardi, Massimo; Landini, Luigi; Simi, Silvana. 2009. "Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 6: 1778-1798.

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