Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers
Previous Article in Journal
Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Calibrating Self-Reported Measures of Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy via Bioassays Using a Monte Carlo Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1799-1811; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061799

Peer Pressure, Psychological Distress and the Urge to Smoke

1 Institute of Population Health Sciences / National Health Research Institutes, No.35, Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan 2 School of Nursing / National Yang Ming University / No.155, Sec2, Linong St., Beitou District, Taipei City 112, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2009 / Accepted: 5 June 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [158 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Background: Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. Methods: We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. Results: We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (–1.62, 95%CI = –2.26- –0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level educations (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). Conclusions: These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.
Keywords: cue response; psychological motive; social motive; smoking behavior cue response; psychological motive; social motive; smoking behavior
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, Y.-W.; Wen, Y.-W.; Tsai, C.-R.; Tsai, T.-I. Peer Pressure, Psychological Distress and the Urge to Smoke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1799-1811.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert