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Health Risk and Biological Effects of Cardiac Ionising Imaging: From Epidemiology to Genes
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy
Genetic Research Unit, G. Pasquinucci Hospital, Via Aurelia Sud-Montepepe, 54100 Massa, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2009 / Accepted: 17 June 2009 / Published: 19 June 2009
Abstract: Cardiac diagnostic or therapeutic testing is an essential tool for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease, but it also involves considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. Every exposure produces a corresponding increase in cancer risk, and risks are highest for radiation exposure during infancy and adolescence. Recent studies on chromosomal biomarkers corroborate the current radioprotection assumption showing that even modest radiation load due to cardiac catheter-based fluoroscopic procedures can damage the DNA of the cell. In this article, we review the biological and clinical risks of cardiac imaging employing ionizing radiation. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the use of molecular biomarkers in order to better assess the long-term development of health effects.
Keywords: ionizing radiation; DNA damage; cancer risk; biomarkers; genetic polymorphisms
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MDPI and ACS Style
Foffa, I.; Cresci, M.; Andreassi, M.G. Health Risk and Biological Effects of Cardiac Ionising Imaging: From Epidemiology to Genes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1882-1893.
Foffa I, Cresci M, Andreassi MG. Health Risk and Biological Effects of Cardiac Ionising Imaging: From Epidemiology to Genes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(6):1882-1893.
Foffa, Ilenia; Cresci, Monica; Andreassi, Maria Grazia. 2009. "Health Risk and Biological Effects of Cardiac Ionising Imaging: From Epidemiology to Genes." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 6: 1882-1893.