This article is
- freely available
The Risks of Inappropriateness in Cardiac Imaging
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy
Received: 20 April 2009 / Accepted: 12 May 2009 / Published: 14 May 2009
Abstract: The immense clinical and scientific benefits of cardiovascular imaging are well-established, but are also true that 30 to 50% of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Marketing messages, high patient demand and defensive medicine, lead to the vicious circle of the so-called Ulysses syndrome. Mr. Ulysses, a typical middle-aged “worried-well” asymptomatic subject with an A-type coronary personality, a heavy (opium) smoker, leading a stressful life, would be advised to have a cardiological check-up after 10 years of war. After a long journey across imaging laboratories, he will have stress echo, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, PET-CT, 64-slice CT, and adenosine-MRI performed, with a cumulative cost of >100 times a simple exercise-electrocardiography test and a cumulative radiation dose of >4,000 chest x-rays, with a cancer risk of 1 in 100. Ulysses is tired of useless examinations, exorbitant costs. unaffordable even by the richest society, and unacceptable risks.
Keywords: appropriateness; benefit; radiation; risk
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Picano, E. The Risks of Inappropriateness in Cardiac Imaging. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1649-1664.
Picano E. The Risks of Inappropriateness in Cardiac Imaging. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1649-1664.
Picano, Eugenio. 2009. "The Risks of Inappropriateness in Cardiac Imaging." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1649-1664.