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Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA
Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92186, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 April 2009; Accepted: 19 May 2009 / Published: 20 May 2009
Abstract: Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.
Keywords: cigarette litter; waste; butts; smoking; filters; environment
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Novotny, T.E.; Lum, K.; Smith, E.; Wang, V.; Barnes, R. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1691-1705.
Novotny TE, Lum K, Smith E, Wang V, Barnes R. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1691-1705.
Novotny, Thomas E.; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard. 2009. "Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1691-1705.