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Analysis of Airborne Betula Pollen in Finland; a 31-Year Perspective
Department of Teacher Education, University of Turku, Finland
Aerobiology Unit, University of Turku, Finland
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2009; Accepted: 20 May 2009 / Published: 26 May 2009
Abstract: In this 31-year retrospective study, we examined the influence of meteorology on airborne Betula spp. (birch) pollen concentrations in Turku, Finland. The seasonal incidence of airborne birch pollen in Turku occurred over a brief period each year during spring (April 30 – May 31). Mean peak concentrations were restricted to May (May 5 to 13). Statistically significant increases in the annual accumulated birch pollen sum and daily maximum values were observed over the study period. Birch pollen counts collected in April were retrospectively shown to increase over the duration of the study. Increases in April temperature values were also significantly associated with the earlier onset of the birch pollen season. Furthermore, the number of days where daily birch pollen concentrations exceeded 10 and 1,000 grains/m3 also increased throughout the study period. These data demonstrate that increases in temperature, especially during months preceding the onset of the birch pollen season, favor preseason phenological development and pollen dispersal. Birch pollen derived from other geographical locations may also contribute to the aerospora of Turku, Finland. To date, the public health burden associated with personal exposure to elevated birch pollen loads remains unclear and is the focus of future epidemiological research.
Keywords: allergen; Betula spp.; birch; biometeorology; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yli-Panula, E.; Fekedulegn, D.B.; Green, B.J.; Ranta, H. Analysis of Airborne Betula Pollen in Finland; a 31-Year Perspective. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1706-1723.
Yli-Panula E, Fekedulegn DB, Green BJ, Ranta H. Analysis of Airborne Betula Pollen in Finland; a 31-Year Perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(6):1706-1723.
Yli-Panula, Eija; Fekedulegn, Desta Bey; Green, Brett James; Ranta, Hanna. 2009. "Analysis of Airborne Betula Pollen in Finland; a 31-Year Perspective." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 6: 1706-1723.