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Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Unit of Epidemiology, J. Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Federal Public Service of Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Victor Hortaplein 40, 1060 Brussels, Belgium
Institute for European Studies, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Hospital for Children Queen Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue J. Crocq 15, 1020 Laeken, Belgium
Superior Health Council, Zelfbestuurstraat 4, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Ghent University, department of Public Health, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2009; Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 15 May 2009
Abstract: There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004) were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day), while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day). The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.
Keywords: fluoride; exposure assessment; food consumption survey; Belgium
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Vandevijvere, S.; Horion, B.; Fondu, M.; Mozin, M.-J.; Ulens, M.; Huybrechts, I.; Van Oyen, H.; Noirfalise, A. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1676-1690.
Vandevijvere S, Horion B, Fondu M, Mozin M-J, Ulens M, Huybrechts I, Van Oyen H, Noirfalise A. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1676-1690.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Horion, Benoit; Fondu, Michel; Mozin, Marie-Josée; Ulens, Michèle; Huybrechts, Inge; Van Oyen, Herman; Noirfalise, Alfred. 2009. "Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1676-1690.