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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1676-1690; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051676
Article

Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

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Received: 21 April 2009; Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 15 May 2009
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Abstract: There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004) were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day), while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day). The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.
Keywords: fluoride; exposure assessment; food consumption survey; Belgium fluoride; exposure assessment; food consumption survey; Belgium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vandevijvere, S.; Horion, B.; Fondu, M.; Mozin, M.-J.; Ulens, M.; Huybrechts, I.; Van Oyen, H.; Noirfalise, A. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1676-1690.

AMA Style

Vandevijvere S, Horion B, Fondu M, Mozin M-J, Ulens M, Huybrechts I, Van Oyen H, Noirfalise A. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1676-1690.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Horion, Benoit; Fondu, Michel; Mozin, Marie-Josée; Ulens, Michèle; Huybrechts, Inge; Van Oyen, Herman; Noirfalise, Alfred. 2009. "Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1676-1690.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert