Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1633-1648; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051633
Article

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

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Received: 18 April 2009; Accepted: 7 May 2009 / Published: 14 May 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.
Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; secondhand smoke (SHS); passive smoking; serum cotinine; self-reported exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Max, W.; Sung, H.-Y.; Shi, Y. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1633-1648.

AMA Style

Max W, Sung H-Y, Shi Y. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1633-1648.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling. 2009. "Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1633-1648.

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