Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1665-1675; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051665
Article

Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

1 Center for Safety Research, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, Teknikringen 78B, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden 2 Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Box 802, 721 22 Västerås, Sweden 3 Center for Clinical Research, University of Uppsala, Central Hospital, SE-721 89 Västerås, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Department of International Health, SE-171 77 Sweden 4 Center for Safety Research, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2009; Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 15 May 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing or quitting smoking. Results: Somatic health consequences were estimated to occur later than consequences related to mood and social relations. All consequences were estimated to occur later given quitting smoking. Pregnancy had an effect on the estimated time that consequences would occur, with pregnant women estimating earlier occurrence of consequences related to mood and social relations than non-pregnant women did. Conclusion: Health messages should stress consequences for somatic health in quitting smoking, since outcomes later in time might have too low a value to exert a positive effect on decisions to quit smoking.
Keywords: smoking; pregnancy; quitting; consequences

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortendahl, M.; Uttermalm, A.; Simonsson, B.; Näsman, P.; Wallsten, T. Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1665-1675.

AMA Style

Ortendahl M, Uttermalm A, Simonsson B, Näsman P, Wallsten T. Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(5):1665-1675.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ortendahl, Monica; Uttermalm, Alf; Simonsson, Bo; Näsman, Per; Wallsten, Tuula. 2009. "Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 5: 1665-1675.

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