Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1371-1392; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041371
Article

Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)

1 Langan Engineering and Environmental Services, Elmwood Park, NJ 07407, USA 2 Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA 3 Mechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA 4 US Army TACOM-ARDEC, Energetics & Warheads Division, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806, USA 5 PMK Group, Inc., ERCP Division, Farmingdale, NJ 07727, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2009; Accepted: 23 March 2009 / Published: 9 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability and Environmental Sciences)
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Abstract: The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol) and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model.
Keywords: Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane; CL-20; biodegradation; activated sludge; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; logistic growth model; mineralization

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karakaya, P.; Christodoulatos, C.; Koutsospyros, A.; Balas, W.; Nicolich, S.; Sidhoum, M. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1371-1392.

AMA Style

Karakaya P, Christodoulatos C, Koutsospyros A, Balas W, Nicolich S, Sidhoum M. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(4):1371-1392.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karakaya, Pelin; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steve; Sidhoum, Mohammed. 2009. "Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 4: 1371-1392.

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