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Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)
Langan Engineering and Environmental Services, Elmwood Park, NJ 07407, USA
Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
Mechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
US Army TACOM-ARDEC, Energetics & Warheads Division, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806, USA
PMK Group, Inc., ERCP Division, Farmingdale, NJ 07727, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2009 / Accepted: 23 March 2009 / Published: 9 April 2009
Abstract: The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol) and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model.
Keywords: Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane; CL-20; biodegradation; activated sludge; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; logistic growth model; mineralization
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MDPI and ACS Style
Karakaya, P.; Christodoulatos, C.; Koutsospyros, A.; Balas, W.; Nicolich, S.; Sidhoum, M. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1371-1392.
Karakaya P, Christodoulatos C, Koutsospyros A, Balas W, Nicolich S, Sidhoum M. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(4):1371-1392.
Karakaya, Pelin; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steve; Sidhoum, Mohammed. 2009. "Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 4: 1371-1392.