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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1358-1370; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041358
Article

Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region

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Received: 24 December 2008; Accepted: 1 April 2009 / Published: 3 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 – 3.16), adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause.
Keywords: Cancer of the pharynx; cancer of the larynx; cancer of the esophagus; smoking; alcohol Cancer of the pharynx; cancer of the larynx; cancer of the esophagus; smoking; alcohol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ansary-Moghaddam, A.; Martiniuk, A.; Lam, T.-H.; Jamrozik, K.; Tamakoshi, A.; Fang, X.; Suh, I.; Barzi, F.; Huxley, R.; Woodward, M. Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1358-1370.

AMA Style

Ansary-Moghaddam A, Martiniuk A, Lam T-H, Jamrozik K, Tamakoshi A, Fang X, Suh I, Barzi F, Huxley R, Woodward M. Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(4):1358-1370.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ansary-Moghaddam, Alireza; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Lam, Tai-Hing; Jamrozik, Konrad; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Fang, Xianghua; Suh, Il; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Woodward, Mark. 2009. "Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 4: 1358-1370.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert