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Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men
Division of Primary Care, School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA
College of Public Health and Health Professionals, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2008; Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 20 March 2009
Abstract: Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs.
Keywords: Smoking/tobacco; Genital warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); HIV; men who have sex with men (MSM); CD4+ T-lymphocyte count; longitudinal/cohort
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Wiley, D.J.; Elashoff, D.; Masongsong, E.V.; Harper, D.M.; Gylys, K.H.; Silverberg, M.J.; Cook, R.L.; Johnson-Hill, L.M. Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1215-1234.
Wiley DJ, Elashoff D, Masongsong EV, Harper DM, Gylys KH, Silverberg MJ, Cook RL, Johnson-Hill LM. Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(3):1215-1234.
Wiley, Dorothy J.; Elashoff, David; Masongsong, Emmanuel V.; Harper, Diane M.; Gylys, Karen H.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Cook, Robert L.; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M. 2009. "Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 3: 1215-1234.