Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 1215-1234; doi:10.3390/ijerph6031215
Article

Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men

1 Division of Primary Care, School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA 2 David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA 3 Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA 4 Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA 5 College of Public Health and Health Professionals, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 6 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2008; Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 20 March 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs.
Keywords: Smoking/tobacco; Genital warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); HIV; men who have sex with men (MSM); CD4+ T-lymphocyte count; longitudinal/cohort

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wiley, D.J.; Elashoff, D.; Masongsong, E.V.; Harper, D.M.; Gylys, K.H.; Silverberg, M.J.; Cook, R.L.; Johnson-Hill, L.M. Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1215-1234.

AMA Style

Wiley DJ, Elashoff D, Masongsong EV, Harper DM, Gylys KH, Silverberg MJ, Cook RL, Johnson-Hill LM. Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(3):1215-1234.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wiley, Dorothy J.; Elashoff, David; Masongsong, Emmanuel V.; Harper, Diane M.; Gylys, Karen H.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Cook, Robert L.; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M. 2009. "Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 3: 1215-1234.

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