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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 154; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020154

Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner

1
Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
2
USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2275 KB, uploaded 7 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Following topical application to adult Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodiene-resistant rdl-1675 strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. Although this finding suggests low cross resistance in the presence of rdl, the moderate potency, low contact activity, and slow action of fluralaner argue against its use as an adult mosquitocide for vector control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Drosophila melanogaster; fipronil; GABA receptor Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Drosophila melanogaster; fipronil; GABA receptor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, S.; Tsikolia, M.; Bernier, U.R.; Bloomquist, J.R. Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 154.

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