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Special Issue "Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century"

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paul J. Linser

The Whitney Laboratory of the University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mosquito biology at all life stages; environmentally conscientious control strategies; mosquito impact on human society; host pathogen interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mosquitoes have challenged human progress for many centuries. The diseases that are vectored by various mosquitoes impact wild and domestic animal success. On a very personal human level, some of those diseases remain major threats to human health world-wide. Emerging pathogens of the 21st century have significantly added to the mosquito threat as the result of such age-old disease burdens as Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever and many more. The recent spread of Old World viral diseases, such as West Nile, Chikungunya and Zika to other parts of the globe have raised our consciousness to the need for ever-evolving methods of mosquito control. In this Special Issue of IJERPH we hope to bring together research reports on the many ways in which mosquito population control has progressed in recent years and the new and exciting directions on the horizon. Advances in our understanding of mosquito biology from cellular and neurobiology to chemical senses to innate immunity to renal and gut function as well as the implementation of ever more detailed technical approaches have produced truly paradigm shifting momentum for management of an ancient problem into the 21st century.

Prof. Dr. Paul J. Linser
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mosquito disease vectors
  • Emerging Pathogens
  • Arbo virus transmission blockage
  • WHO Zika response
  • Pesticide
  • Off-target impact

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Cost-Effectiveness of the Strategies to Reduce the Incidence of Dengue in Colima, México
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 890; doi:10.3390/ijerph14080890
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Dengue fever is considered to be one of the most important arboviral diseases globally. Unsuccessful vector-control strategies might be due to the lack of sustainable community participation. The state of Colima, located in the Western region of Mexico, is a dengue-endemic area despite
[...] Read more.
Dengue fever is considered to be one of the most important arboviral diseases globally. Unsuccessful vector-control strategies might be due to the lack of sustainable community participation. The state of Colima, located in the Western region of Mexico, is a dengue-endemic area despite vector-control activities implemented, which may be due to an insufficient health economic analysis of these interventions. A randomized controlled community trial took place in five urban municipalities where 24 clusters were included. The study groups (n = 4) included an intervention to improve the community participation in vector control (A), ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying (B), both interventions (AB), and a control group. The main outcomes investigated were dengue cumulative incidence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and the direct costs per intervention. The cumulative incidence of dengue was 17.4%, A; 14.3%, B; 14.4%, AB; and 30.2% in the control group. The highest efficiency and effectiveness were observed in group B (0.526 and 6.97, respectively) and intervention A was more likely to be cost-effective ($3952.84 per DALY avoided) followed by intervention B ($4472.09 per DALY avoided). Our findings suggest that efforts to improve community participation in vector control and ULV-spraying alone are cost-effective and may be useful to reduce the vector density and dengue incidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 892; doi:10.3390/ijerph14080892
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
PDF Full-text (4394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host
[...] Read more.
The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, within their flight range. Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus. The spatio-temporal correlations between VHC data and 33 variables, including climate, land use-land cover (LULC), socioeconomic, and land surface terrain were analyzed using stepwise linear regression models (RM). Using MaxEnt, we developed a distribution model using the correlated predicting variables. Only 12 factors showed significant correlations with spatial distribution of VHC ratios (R2 = 81.62, p < 0.01). Non-forested wetland (NFWL), tree density (TD) and residential-urban (RU) settings demonstrated the strongest relationship. The VHC ratios showed monthly environmental resilience in terms of number and type of influential factors. The highest prediction power of RU and other urban and built up land (OUBL), was demonstrated during May–August. This association was positively correlated with the onset of the mosquito WNV infection rate during June. These findings were confirmed by the Jackknife analysis in MaxEnt and independently collected field validation points. The spatial and temporal correlations of VHC ratios and their response to the predicting variables are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 313; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030313
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
PDF Full-text (2006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO
[...] Read more.
We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%), which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 246; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030246
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
PDF Full-text (1112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2) traps were also deployed, to assess adult mosquito density and species composition. (3) Results: Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), a known container-inhabiting species, accounted for just over 50% of all mosquitoes identified. Most residents were aware of mosquito-borne disease and its risk in their local area. While the majority (79%) of the sample correctly identified Ross River virus as the most common infection in WA, a significant gap in the general knowledge of residents in regards to mosquito biology and breeding habits, was noted. Furthermore, only 50% of residents reported using personal protective measures to reduce mosquito bites and only one in six residents undertook physical or chemical mosquito control around their home. Additionally, 60% of respondents believed that mosquito control was “a job for the council and the state government”, rather than for individual householders. (4) Conclusions: A significant gap in the knowledge of residents in the study area existed in regards to the general knowledge of mosquitoes and their breeding habits; types of treatments that could be employed within the home; and the residents’ responsibility for the management of mosquito breeding on their private property. A public education campaign has been deployed to educate the residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 213; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020213
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
PDF Full-text (4827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and
[...] Read more.
In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the new millennium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 196; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020196
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control.
[...] Read more.
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 154; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020154
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
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Abstract
Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC50 (lethal concentration
[...] Read more.
Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Following topical application to adult Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodiene-resistant rdl-1675 strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. Although this finding suggests low cross resistance in the presence of rdl, the moderate potency, low contact activity, and slow action of fluralaner argue against its use as an adult mosquitocide for vector control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Infection Rates by Dengue Virus in Mosquitoes and the Influence of Temperature May Be Related to Different Endemicity Patterns in Three Colombian Cities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 734; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070734
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Colombia is an endemic country for dengue fever where the four serotypes of virus dengue (DENV1–4) circulate simultaneously, and all types are responsible for dengue cases in the country. The control strategies are guided by entomological surveillance. However, heterogeneity in aedic indices is
[...] Read more.
Colombia is an endemic country for dengue fever where the four serotypes of virus dengue (DENV1–4) circulate simultaneously, and all types are responsible for dengue cases in the country. The control strategies are guided by entomological surveillance. However, heterogeneity in aedic indices is not well correlated with the incidence of the disease in cities such as Riohacha, Bello and Villavicencio. As an alternative, molecular detection of dengue virus in mosquitoes has been proposed as a useful tool for epidemiological surveillance and identification of serotypes circulating in field. We conducted a spatiotemporal fieldwork in these cities to capture adult mosquitoes to assess vector infection and explain the differences between Breteau indices and disease incidence. DENV infection in females and DENV serotype identification were evaluated and infection rates (IR) were estimated. The relationship between density, dengue cases and vector index was also estimated with logistic regression modeling and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The lack of association between aedic indices and dengue incidence is in agreement with the weak associations between the density of the mosquitoes and their infection with DENV in the three cities. However, association was evident between the IR and dengue cases in Villavicencio. Furthermore, we found important negative associations between temperature and lag time from two to six weeks in Riohacha. We conclude that density of mosquitoes is not a good predictor of dengue cases. Instead, IR and temperature might explain better such heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 398; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040398
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new
[...] Read more.
Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
Open AccessReview Current and Future Repellent Technologies: The Potential of Spatial Repellents and Their Place in Mosquito-Borne Disease Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 124; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020124
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every year, approximately 700,000 people die from complications associated with etiologic disease agents transmitted by mosquitoes. While insecticide-based vector control strategies are important for the management of mosquito-borne diseases, insecticide-resistance and other logistical hurdles may lower the efficacy of this approach, especially in
[...] Read more.
Every year, approximately 700,000 people die from complications associated with etiologic disease agents transmitted by mosquitoes. While insecticide-based vector control strategies are important for the management of mosquito-borne diseases, insecticide-resistance and other logistical hurdles may lower the efficacy of this approach, especially in developing countries. Repellent technologies represent another fundamental aspect of preventing mosquito-borne disease transmission. Among these technologies, spatial repellents are promising alternatives to the currently utilized contact repellents and may significantly aid in the prevention of mosquito-borne disease if properly incorporated into integrated pest management approaches. As their deployment would not rely on prohibitively expensive or impractical novel accessory technologies and resources, they have potential utility in developing countries where the burden of mosquito-borne disease is most prevalent. This review aims to describe the history of various repellent technologies, highlight the potential of repellent technologies in preventing the spread of mosquito-borne disease, and discuss currently known mechanisms that confer resistance to current contact and spatial repellents, which may lead to the failures of these repellents. In the subsequent section, current and future research projects aimed at exploring long-lasting non-pyrethroid spatial repellent molecules along with new paradigms and rationale for their development will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessReview Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 111; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020111
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular
[...] Read more.
The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure). To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K+ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K+ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH3, reactive oxygen species). The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessReview Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1267; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121267
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of
[...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article

Title: Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes Aegypti and its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases
Authors: Daniel P. Dixon, Leslie VanEkeris and Paul J. Linser
Affiliation: The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Oceanshore Blvd, Saint Augustine, FL 32080, USA;
Abstract: In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the new millennium.

Type of Paper: Article

Title: Mosquitocidal activity and mode of action of the isoxazoline fluralaner
Authors: S. Jiang1, M. Tsikolia1, U. R. Bernier2 and J. R. Bloomquist1
Affiliation: 1Department of Entomology and Nematology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA;
2Mosquito & Fly Research Unit, USDA-ARS-CMAVE, 1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA;
Abstract: Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-hr LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.38 ppb, respectively. Following topical application on Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on
Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. Pre-application of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate increased fluralaner activity by 4- to 8-fold in feeding assays, implying esterases or amidases might be involved in fluralaner metabolism. Other synergists affecting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (piperonyl butoxide) or glutathione
S-transferases (diethyl maleate) had less effect on fluralaner toxicity. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodienes-resistant rdl strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. This study suggests that the moderate potency, low contact toxicity, and slow action of fluralaner might preclude its use as a mosquitocide for disease control.

Title: Household dengue prevention interventions, expenditures, and barriers to Aedes aegypti control in Machala, Ecuador
Authors: Naveed Heydari 1, Anna M Stewart Ibarra 2, David Larsen 3, Marco Neira 4
Affiliation: 1 Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA;
2 Center for Global Health and Translational Science and Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA;
3 Department of Public Health, Food Studies and Nutrition, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA;
4 Pontificia Universidad Catolica Del Ecuador, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
Abstract: The Aedes aegypti is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya and dengue viruses. However, understanding of the household expenditures needed to control this mosquito is relatively sparse. As various countries face the rising epidemic of Ae. aegypti-transmitted illnesses such as Zika virus, research on the extent of use and cost of interventions to control the Ae. aegypti is urgently needed. Between April and August 2015, we surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community in Machala, Ecuador on dengue knowledge and perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and barriers to employing prevention practices. Additionally, a semi-structured survey was
recorded, transcribed and coded to identify the important factors that influence a household’s decision to purchase mosquito control products. To determine the various types and cost of products available for sale to households, we surveyed 10 neighborhood stores and 3 modern supermarkets. The results of this study show that households in this neighborhood spend about 2% of their total family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. On average, households concurrently employed five mosquito control interventions and had access to a variety of products, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. From our qualitative theme analysis, we found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. These findings show a robust and healthy market for commercial mosquito control products even among the poorest of households in Machala, Ecuador. With the rise in Zika virus transmission, the need for Aedes aegypti control has only been exacerbated. Further research will examine how household economics are influenced by the rise of a new disease.

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