Special Issue "Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century"
A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2017
Mosquitoes have challenged human progress for many centuries. The diseases that are vectored by various mosquitoes impact wild and domestic animal success. On a very personal human level, some of those diseases remain major threats to human health world-wide. Emerging pathogens of the 21st century have significantly added to the mosquito threat as the result of such age-old disease burdens as Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever and many more. The recent spread of Old World viral diseases, such as West Nile, Chikungunya and Zika to other parts of the globe have raised our consciousness to the need for ever-evolving methods of mosquito control. In this Special Issue of IJERPH we hope to bring together research reports on the many ways in which mosquito population control has progressed in recent years and the new and exciting directions on the horizon. Advances in our understanding of mosquito biology from cellular and neurobiology to chemical senses to innate immunity to renal and gut function as well as the implementation of ever more detailed technical approaches have produced truly paradigm shifting momentum for management of an ancient problem into the 21st century.
Prof. Dr. Paul J. Linser
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- Mosquito disease vectors
- Emerging Pathogens
- Arbo virus transmission blockage
- WHO Zika response
- Off-target impact
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes Aegypti and its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases
Authors: Daniel P. Dixon, Leslie VanEkeris and Paul J. Linser
Affiliation: The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Oceanshore Blvd, Saint Augustine, FL 32080, USA;
Abstract: In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the new millennium.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Mosquitocidal activity and mode of action of the isoxazoline fluralaner
Authors: S. Jiang1, M. Tsikolia1, U. R. Bernier2 and J. R. Bloomquist1
Affiliation: 1Department of Entomology and Nematology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA;
2Mosquito & Fly Research Unit, USDA-ARS-CMAVE, 1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA;
Abstract: Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-hr LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.38 ppb, respectively. Following topical application on Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on
Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. Pre-application of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate increased fluralaner activity by 4- to 8-fold in feeding assays, implying esterases or amidases might be involved in fluralaner metabolism. Other synergists affecting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (piperonyl butoxide) or glutathione
S-transferases (diethyl maleate) had less effect on fluralaner toxicity. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodienes-resistant rdl strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. This study suggests that the moderate potency, low contact toxicity, and slow action of fluralaner might preclude its use as a mosquitocide for disease control.
Title: Household dengue prevention interventions, expenditures, and barriers to Aedes aegypti control in Machala, Ecuador
Authors: Naveed Heydari 1, Anna M Stewart Ibarra 2, David Larsen 3, Marco Neira 4
Affiliation: 1 Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA;
2 Center for Global Health and Translational Science and Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA;
3 Department of Public Health, Food Studies and Nutrition, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA;
4 Pontificia Universidad Catolica Del Ecuador, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
Abstract: The Aedes aegypti is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya and dengue viruses. However, understanding of the household expenditures needed to control this mosquito is relatively sparse. As various countries face the rising epidemic of Ae. aegypti-transmitted illnesses such as Zika virus, research on the extent of use and cost of interventions to control the Ae. aegypti is urgently needed. Between April and August 2015, we surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community in Machala, Ecuador on dengue knowledge and perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and barriers to employing prevention practices. Additionally, a semi-structured survey was
recorded, transcribed and coded to identify the important factors that influence a household’s decision to purchase mosquito control products. To determine the various types and cost of products available for sale to households, we surveyed 10 neighborhood stores and 3 modern supermarkets. The results of this study show that households in this neighborhood spend about 2% of their total family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. On average, households concurrently employed five mosquito control interventions and had access to a variety of products, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. From our qualitative theme analysis, we found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. These findings show a robust and healthy market for commercial mosquito control products even among the poorest of households in Machala, Ecuador. With the rise in Zika virus transmission, the need for Aedes aegypti control has only been exacerbated. Further research will examine how household economics are influenced by the rise of a new disease.