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Comment published on 25 May 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 532.

Reply published on 25 May 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 533.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 246; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030246

Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells

1
The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China
2
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China
3
Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Taizhou 317000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
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Abstract

Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) is one of the phthalate plasticizers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DCHP on fetal Leydig cell distribution and function as well as testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley dams orally received vehicle (corn oil, control) or DCHP (10, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 12 to GD 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell number and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DCHP administration produced a dose-dependent increase of the incidence of multinucleated gonocytes at ≥100 mg/kg. DCHP dose-dependently increased abnormal fetal Leydig cell aggregation and decreased fetal Leydig cell size, cytoplasmic size, and nuclear size at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP reduced the expression levels of steroidogenesis-related genes (including Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3) and testis-descent related gene Insl3 as well as protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP significantly inhibited testicular testosterone levels at ≥100 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DCHP affects the expression levels of fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes and results in the occurrence of multinucleated gonocytes and Leydig cell aggregation. View Full-Text
Keywords: dicyclohexyl phthalate; fetal Leydig cell; Leydig cell aggregation; testosterone dicyclohexyl phthalate; fetal Leydig cell; Leydig cell aggregation; testosterone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Chen, X.; Hu, G.; Li, L.; Su, H.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Zhu, Q.; Li, C.; Li, J.; Wang, M.; Lian, Q.; Ge, R.-S. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 246.

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