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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 201; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020201

Diabetes Mellitus, ArterialWall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa 56122, Italy
2
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa 56122, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Care and Diabetes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [791 KB, uploaded 6 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structural background for cardiovascular events. The present paper provides a critical overview of the clinical evidence linking diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular risk, debates the pathophysiologic mechanisms through which insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may affect the arterial wall, and discusses the associations between vascular biomarkers, metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular events. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; atherosclerosis; arterial stiffness; cardiovascular risk; hyperglycemia; insulin resistance diabetes; atherosclerosis; arterial stiffness; cardiovascular risk; hyperglycemia; insulin resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kozakova, M.; Palombo, C. Diabetes Mellitus, ArterialWall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 201.

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