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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1131; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111131

Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

1
Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
3
Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
4
Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
5
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
6
Divisions of Hematology and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laura L. Jones and Amanda Farley
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [433 KB, uploaded 12 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS). Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondhand smoke; environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco; sickle cell disease; pulmonary function tests secondhand smoke; environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco; sickle cell disease; pulmonary function tests
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sadreameli, S.C.; Kopp, B.T.; Creary, S.E.; Eakin, M.N.; McGrath-Morrow, S.; Strouse, J.J. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1131.

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