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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1216; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121216

Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

1
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Bureau of Quality Assurance, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Biological and Environmental Monitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
4
Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, E1 2AB London, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laura L. Jones and Amanda Farley
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke)
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Abstract

A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal cigarette smoking; environmental tobacco smoke; pregnancy; saliva cotinine; cut-off values maternal cigarette smoking; environmental tobacco smoke; pregnancy; saliva cotinine; cut-off values
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polanska, K.; Krol, A.; Kaluzny, P.; Ligocka, D.; Mikolajewska, K.; Shaheen, S.; Walton, R.; Hanke, W. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1216.

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