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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1098; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111098

“He Doesn’t Listen to My Words at All, So I Don’t Tell Him Anything”—A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India

1
Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
2
ARK Foundation, House 130, Road 21, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh
3
National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore 560029, India
4
Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laura L. Jones and Amanda Farley
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [292 KB, uploaded 8 November 2016]

Abstract

Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. To design interventions to reduce exposure, an in depth understanding of social and cultural factors of smoking behavior at home is important, especially in South Asia where SHS exposure is high. This study aimed to explore pregnant women’s, their husbands’ and other family members’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding home SHS exposure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 participants in Comilla, Bangladesh and 31 in Bangalore, India (36 pregnant women, 18 husbands, and 10 family members). Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. Husbands smoked in various living areas inside the home, often in the presence of their pregnant wives. Most had never tried to stop smoking at home. Knowledge of the risks was generally poor. Most women had repeatedly asked their husband to smoke outside with little success and only few family members had reprimanded the husbands. Husbands who had stopped did so because of requests from children and their mother. Potential strategies to decrease SHS exposure at home were educating the husband about risks and supporting the pregnant women in negotiation. Interventions must also enlist family support to enhance the woman’s self-efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; tobacco; second hand smoke; middle income; pregnancy; women; fetus; smoke free homes; low and middle income countries smoking; tobacco; second hand smoke; middle income; pregnancy; women; fetus; smoke free homes; low and middle income countries
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jackson, C.; Huque, R.; Satyanarayana, V.; Nasreen, S.; Kaur, M.; Barua, D.; Bhowmik, P.N.; Guha, M.; Dherani, M.; Rahman, A.; Siddiqi, K.; Chandra, P.S. “He Doesn’t Listen to My Words at All, So I Don’t Tell Him Anything”—A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1098.

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