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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8172-8186; doi:10.3390/ijerph120708172

Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA) on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

1
Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST Europe) Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Universitaet des Saarlandes Campus E7 1, Saarbruecken 66123, Germany
2
Institute of Ecology, Chair Ecological Impact Research and Ecotoxicology, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, Berlin 10587, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mónica Amorim
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1673 KB, uploaded 15 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA) using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI)-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation), whereas both citrate (Cit)-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan)-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L) were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs). It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); salt stability; surface charge; ecotoxicological screening test; multi-species of luminescent bacteria surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); salt stability; surface charge; ecotoxicological screening test; multi-species of luminescent bacteria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jung, Y.; Park, C.-B.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Pflugmacher, S.; Baik, S. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA) on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 8172-8186.

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