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Special Issue "Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mónica Amorim (Website)

Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: nanotoxicology; toxicogenomics; soil ecotoxicology; mechanisms of response; systems toxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials (NMs) are rapidly developing and have a vast range of applications. Consequently, there is a concomitant increase in the risk of these materials being released into the environment. Reasonably, there is concern about the hazards and sustainability of nanotechnology; this concern has driven impressive progress in the field of nanotoxicology. However, there is still a considerable need for environmental data that can support modelling and the extrapolation of effects; data concerning transformed/released/aged materials is also needed.

This Special Issue aims to tackle the aforementioned needs and will focus on the effects of NMs in biological systems and their risk assessment in the environment and complex media. Results from experimental data, including exposure within various test media and biological models, with proper materials characterization, are welcome. Effect assessment ranging from standard biological endpoints at the population level to subcellular levels, and more mechanistic-based approaches, including studies concerning gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, molecular signaling, and biomarkers, are also encouraged. Papers that discuss aspects of cross-species, modelling, intelligent testing strategies, safer-by-design approaches, and innovative techniques for the measurement of materials are welcome as well.

Dr. Mónica Amorim
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • nanomaterials/nanoparticles
  • biological systems
  • environment
  • environmental risk assessment
  • safety
  • nanotoxicology
  • characterization of nanomaterials
  • detection

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial The Daunting Challenge of Ensuring Sustainable Development of Nanomaterials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 245; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020245
Received: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The development and implementation of nanomaterials (NMs) is rapid and a vast range of applications is already in place or foreseen.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 332; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030332
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil [...] Read more.
The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Engineered Copper Nanoparticles in Soil Using Single Particle ICP-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15756-15768; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215020
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of [...] Read more.
Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of nanotechnology. The use of copper nanoparticles in products, such as agricultural biocides, cosmetics and paints, is increasing. Copper based ENMs will eventually be released to the environment through the use and disposal of nano-enabled products, however, the detection of copper ENMs in environmental samples is a challenging task. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS) has been suggested as a powerful tool for routine nanometrology efforts. In this work, we apply a spICP-MS method for the detection of engineered copper nanomaterials in colloidal extracts from natural soil samples. Overall, copper nanoparticles were successfully detected in the soil colloidal extracts and the importance of dwell time, background removal, and sample dilution for method optimization and recovery maximization is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15007-15021; doi:10.3390/ijerph121214961
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all [...] Read more.
An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13415-13434; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013415
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process [...] Read more.
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12530-12542; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012530
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of [...] Read more.
The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9589-9602; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809589
Received: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of [...] Read more.
The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for  7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag+ ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9282-9297; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809282
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (14418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay), and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 8828-8848; doi:10.3390/ijerph120808828
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L) [...] Read more.
The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 8717-8743; doi:10.3390/ijerph120808717
Received: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the [...] Read more.
Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8263-8280; doi:10.3390/ijerph120708263
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
PDF Full-text (2148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and [...] Read more.
Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1) and needle-abraded human skin (experiment 2). Co3O4NPs at a concentration of 1000 mg/L in physiological solution were used as donor phase. Cobalt content was evaluated by Inductively Coupled–Mass Spectroscopy. Co permeation through the skin was demonstrated after 24 h only when damaged skin protocol was used (57 ± 38 ng·cm−2), while no significant differences were shown between blank cells (0.92 ± 0.03 ng cm−2) and those with intact skin (1.08 ± 0.20 ng·cm−2). To further investigate Co3O4NPs toxicity, human-derived HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to Co3O4NPs and cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT, Alamarblue® and propidium iodide (PI) uptake assays. The results indicate that a long exposure time (i.e., seven days) was necessary to induce a concentration-dependent cell viability reduction (EC50 values: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.8–1.9 × 10−4 M, MTT essay; 3.7 × 10−5 M, 95% CI = 2.2–6.1 × 10−5 M, AlamarBlue® assay) that seems to be associated to necrotic events (EC50 value: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.9–1.9 × 10−4 M, PI assay). This study demonstrated that Co3O4NPs can penetrate only damaged skin and is cytotoxic for HaCat cells after long term exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA) on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8172-8186; doi:10.3390/ijerph120708172
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
PDF Full-text (1673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA) using multi-species [...] Read more.
Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA) using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI)-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation), whereas both citrate (Cit)-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan)-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L) were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs). It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids): The Effect of Cu and Ag
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6858-6878; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606858
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was [...] Read more.
The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was exposed to the reproduction effect concentrations EC20/50 of several Cu and Ag materials (CuNO3, Cu-Field, Cu-Nwires and Cu-NPs; AgNO3, Ag NM300K, Ag-NPs Non-coated and Ag-NPs PVP-coated) for 7 days (0-3-7d). The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets) and the energy consumption (Ec) integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that these parameters allowed a clear discrimination between Cu and Ag, but less clearly within each of the various materials. For Cu there was an increase in Ec and protein budget, while for Ag a decrease was observed. The results corroborate known mechanisms, e.g., with Cu causing an increase in metabolic rate whereas Ag induces mitochondrial damage. The various Cu forms seem to activate different mechanisms with size and shape (e.g., Cu-NPs versus Cu-Nwires), causing clearly different effects. For Ag, results are in line with a slower oxidation rate of Ag-NMs in comparison with Ag-salt and hence delayed effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Flows and Concentrations of Nine Engineered Nanomaterials in the Danish Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5581-5602; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505581
Received: 16 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Predictions of environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are needed for their environmental risk assessment. Because analytical data on ENM-concentrations in the environment are not yet available, exposure modeling represents the only source of information on ENM exposure in the environment. This [...] Read more.
Predictions of environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are needed for their environmental risk assessment. Because analytical data on ENM-concentrations in the environment are not yet available, exposure modeling represents the only source of information on ENM exposure in the environment. This work provides material flow data and environmental concentrations of nine ENM in Denmark. It represents the first study that distinguishes between photostable TiO2 (as used in sunscreens) and photocatalytic TiO2 (as used in self-cleaning surfaces). It also provides first exposure estimates for quantum dots, carbon black and CuCO3. Other ENM that are covered are ZnO, Ag, CNT and CeO2. The modeling is based for all ENM on probability distributions of production, use, environmental release and transfer between compartments, always considering the complete life-cycle of products containing the ENM. The magnitude of flows and concentrations of the various ENM depends on the one hand on the production volume but also on the type of products they are used in and the life-cycles of these products and their potential for release. The results reveal that in aquatic systems the highest concentrations are expected for carbon black and photostable TiO2, followed by CuCO3 (under the assumption that the use as wood preservative becomes important). In sludge-treated soil highest concentrations are expected for CeO2 and TiO2. Transformation during water treatments results in extremely low concentrations of ZnO and Ag in the environment. The results of this study provide valuable environmental exposure information for future risk assessments of these ENM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Cytotoxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a Variety of Rainbow Trout Cell Lines (RTL-W1, RTH-149, RTG-2) and Primary Hepatocytes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5386-5405; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505386
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Among all classes of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have potentially an important ecotoxicological impact, especially in freshwater environments. Fish are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of silver ions and, with knowledge gaps regarding the contribution of dissolution and unique particle effects [...] Read more.
Among all classes of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have potentially an important ecotoxicological impact, especially in freshwater environments. Fish are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of silver ions and, with knowledge gaps regarding the contribution of dissolution and unique particle effects to AgNP toxicity, they represent a group of vulnerable organisms. Using cell lines (RTL-W1, RTH-149, RTG-2) and primary hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as in vitro test systems, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the representative AgNP, NM-300K, and AgNO3 as an Ag+ ion source. Lack of AgNP interference with the cytotoxicity assays (AlamarBlue, CFDA-AM, NRU assay) and their simultaneous application point to the compatibility and usefulness of such a battery of assays. The RTH-149 and RTL-W1 liver cell lines exhibited similar sensitivity as primary hepatocytes towards AgNP toxicity. Leibovitz’s L-15 culture medium composition (high amino acid content) had an important influence on the behaviour and toxicity of AgNPs towards the RTL-W1 cell line. The obtained results demonstrate that, with careful consideration, such an in vitro approach can provide valuable toxicological data to be used in an integrated testing strategy for NM-300K risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review on the Respiratory System Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 325; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030325
Received: 15 August 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
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Abstract
The respiratory system represents the main gateway for nanoparticles’ entry into the human body. Although there is a myriad of engineered nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles/nanotubes (CNPs/CNTs) have received much attention mainly due to their light weight, very high surface area, durability, and their [...] Read more.
The respiratory system represents the main gateway for nanoparticles’ entry into the human body. Although there is a myriad of engineered nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles/nanotubes (CNPs/CNTs) have received much attention mainly due to their light weight, very high surface area, durability, and their diverse applications. Since their discovery and manufacture over two decades ago, much has been learned about nanoparticles’ interactions with diverse biological system models. In particular, the respiratory system has been of great interest because various natural and man-made fibrous particles are known to be responsible for chronic and debilitating lung diseases. In this review, we present up-to-date the literature regarding the effects of CNTs or carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the human respiratory system with respect to respiratory toxicity pathways and associated pathologies. This article is intended to emphasize the potentially dangerous effects to the human respiratory system if inadequate measures are used in the manufacture, handling, and preparation and applications of CNP or CNP-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessReview Environmental Geochemistry of Cerium: Applications and Toxicology of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1253-1278; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201253
Received: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth’s crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention [...] Read more.
Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth’s crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures) is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent). This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)

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