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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6858-6878; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606858

Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids): The Effect of Cu and Ag

1
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
2
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, PO BOX 314, Silkeborg DK-8600, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul B. Tchounwou and William A. Toscano
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms’ overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was exposed to the reproduction effect concentrations EC20/50 of several Cu and Ag materials (CuNO3, Cu-Field, Cu-Nwires and Cu-NPs; AgNO3, Ag NM300K, Ag-NPs Non-coated and Ag-NPs PVP-coated) for 7 days (0-3-7d). The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets) and the energy consumption (Ec) integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that these parameters allowed a clear discrimination between Cu and Ag, but less clearly within each of the various materials. For Cu there was an increase in Ec and protein budget, while for Ag a decrease was observed. The results corroborate known mechanisms, e.g., with Cu causing an increase in metabolic rate whereas Ag induces mitochondrial damage. The various Cu forms seem to activate different mechanisms with size and shape (e.g., Cu-NPs versus Cu-Nwires), causing clearly different effects. For Ag, results are in line with a slower oxidation rate of Ag-NMs in comparison with Ag-salt and hence delayed effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy available; energy consumption; energy budget; Oligochaeta; nanomaterials energy available; energy consumption; energy budget; Oligochaeta; nanomaterials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gomes, S.I.L.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Amorim, M.J.B. Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids): The Effect of Cu and Ag. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6858-6878.

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