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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4422-4438; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404422

BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

1
Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Center for Health Sciences/NIESN—Interdisciplinary Studies in Health and Nutrition, Federal University of Paraíba, Castelo Branco, João Pessoa, PB 58059-900, Brazil
2
Postgraduate Program in Nutrition, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, PB, 58059-900, Brazil
3
Postgraduate Program in Mother and Child Health (IMIP), Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira—IMIP, Board of Research, Boa Vista, Recife, PE 50070-550, Brazil
4
Postgraduate Program in Decision Models and Health, Department of Statistics, Center of Exact and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-000, Brazil
5
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, João Pessoa, PB 58010-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
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Abstract

Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total population as major factors influencing an increased BMI, followed by the variables physical activity and family income. Conclusions: The adjusted results justify the adoption of intervention and prevention policies to combat these clinical conditions for the study population as a whole, particularly directed toward adults with higher education level as well as elderly females. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; schooling; income; lifestyle; total population obesity; schooling; income; lifestyle; total population
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ataíde Lima, R.P.; de Carvalho Pereira, D.; Pordeus Luna, R.C.; Gonçalves, M.C.R.; de Lima, R.T.; Filho, M.B.; Filizola, R.G.; de Moraes, R.M.; Asciutti, L.S.R.; Costa, M.J.C. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4422-4438.

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