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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2164-2183; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202164

Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Lodz University of Technology, 171/173 Wólczańska Str, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
2
Institute of General Food Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, 171/173 Wólczańska Str, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
3
Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 Strzeszyńska Str, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2015 / Accepted: 6 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria; workplaces; Alt a 1 protein; Alt a 1 gene; ELISA Alternaria; workplaces; Alt a 1 protein; Alt a 1 gene; ELISA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Skóra, J.; Otlewska, A.; Gutarowska, B.; Leszczyńska, J.; Majak, I.; Stępień, Ł. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2164-2183.

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