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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12127-12143; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012127

The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Korea International Cooperation Agency, 825 Daewangpangyo-ro, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeongo-do 13449, Republic of Korea
2
World Vision Korea, 77-1, Yeouinaru-ro, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 07327, Republic of Korea
3
Training Research and Networking for Development, Post Office. Box Cantonments 6135, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
4
Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street London WC1E 7HT, London, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
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Abstract

Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: improved water supply; diarrhea; children under five; Ghana; cluster-randomized controlled trial improved water supply; diarrhea; children under five; Ghana; cluster-randomized controlled trial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cha, S.; Kang, D.; Tuffuor, B.; Lee, G.; Cho, J.; Chung, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Lee, J.; Oh, C. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12127-12143.

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